Administrative Law

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law. As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of administrative units of government (for example, tribunals, boards or commissions) that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transport.

Bond

A bond is a debt security, in which the authorised issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay interest (the coupon) to use and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed maturity. A bond is a formal contract to repay borrowed money with interest at fixed intervals.

Civil Law

Civil law (or civilian law) is a legal system inspired by Roman Law, the primary feature of which is that laws are written into a collection, codified, and not (as in common law) interpreted by judges.

Collective Investment Scheme

A collective investment scheme is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group.

Common Law

Common law (also known as case law or precedent), is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action. A "common law system" is a legal system that gives great precedential weight to common law, on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions. The body of precedent is called "common law" and it binds future decisions. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, an idealized common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision (this principle is known as stare decisis). If, however, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases (called a "matter of first impression "), judges have the authority and duty to make law by creating precedent. Thereafter, the new decision becomes precedent, and will bind future courts.

Company

A company is a form of business organization. It is a collection of individuals and physical assets with a common focus and an aim of gaining profits. This collection exists in law and therefore a company is considered a "legal person".

Company Secretary

A company secretary is a senior position in a private company or public organisation, normally in the form of a managerial position or above. It is known also as a corporate secretary. The Company Secretary is responsible for the efficient administration of a company, particularly with regard to ensuring compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements and for ensuring that decisions of the Board of Directors are implemented.

Constitutional Law

Constitutional law is a body of law dealing with the distribution and exercise of government power.

Contract Law

A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties with mutual obligations. The remedy at law for breach of contract is "damages" or monetary compensation. In equity, the remedy can be specific performance of the contract or an injunction. Both remedies award the damaged party the "benefit of the bargain" or expectation damages, which are greater than mere reliance damages, as in promissory estoppel.

Criminal Law

Criminal law, or penal law, is the body of law that relates to crime. It might be defined as the body of rules that defines conduct that is prohibited by the state because it is held to threaten, harm or otherwise endanger the safety and welfare of the public, and that sets out the punishment to be imposed on those who breach these laws.

Definition of "good and sufficient cause"

The Employment Rights Act provides that "good and sufficient cause" includes:

  1. illness or injury certified by a medical practitioner;
  2. absence authorised by the employer;

Director

A board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company. A board's activities are determined by the powers, duties, and responsibilities delegated to it or conferred on it by an authority outside itself. These matters are typically detailed in the organization's bylaws. The bylaws commonly also specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and when they are to meet.

Hedge Fund

Hedge fund is a private investment fund that participates in a range of assets and a variety of investment strategies intended to protect the fund's investors from downturns in the market while maximizing returns on market upswings.

Interest

Interest is a fee paid by a borrower of assets to the owner as a form of compensation for the use of the assets. It is most commonly the price paid for the use of borrowed money, or, money earned by deposited funds.

Interest Rate

An interest rate is the rate at which interest is paid by a borrower for the use of money that they borrow from a lender.

International Law

International law is the term commonly used for referring to laws that govern the conduct of independent nations in their relationships with one another. It differs from other legal systems in that it primarily concerns provinces rather than private citizens. In other words it is that body of law which is composed for its greater part of the principles and rules of conduct which States feel themselves bound to observe, and the rules of law relating to the function of international institutions or organizations, their relations with each other and their relations with States and individuals.

Investment

In Finance investment is putting money into something with the expectation of gain, that upon thorough analysis, has a high degree of security of principle, as well as security of return, within an expected period of time. In contrast putting money into something with an expectation of gain without thorough analysis, without security of principal, and without security of return is speculation.

Investor

An investor is a party that makes an investment into one or more categories of assets --- equity, debt, securities, real estate, currency, commodity, derivatives such as put and call options, etc. --- with the objective of making a profit.

Law

Law is a system of rules and guidelines, usually enforced through a set of institutions. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract Law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivative markets. Property Law defines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal and real property. Trust Law applies to assets held for investment and financial security. Tort Law allows claims for compensation if a person's rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalised in a statute, Criminal Law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional Law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative Law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign states in activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action.

LIBID

The London Interbank Bid Rate (LIBID) is a bid rate; the rate bid by banks on Eurocurrency deposits (i.e., the rate at which a bank is willing to borrow from other banks). It is "the opposite" of the LIBOR (an offered, hence "ask" rate, the rate at which a bank will lend).

LIBOR

The London Interbank Offered Rate is a daily reference rate based on the interest rates at which banks borrow unsecured funds from other banks in the London wholesale money market (or interbank lending market). Alternatively, this can be seen from the point of view of the banks making the 'offers', as the interest rate at which the banks will lend to each other: that is 'offer' money in the form of a loan for various time periods (maturities) and in different currencies.

Mutual Fund

A mutual fund is a professionally managed type of collective investment that pools money from many investors to buy stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or other securities.

Property Law

Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system. In the civil law system, there is a division between movable and immovable property. Movable property roughly corresponds to personal property, while immovable property corresponds to real estate or real property, and the associated rights and obligations thereon.

Share

A joint stock company divides its capital into units of equal denomination. Each unit is called a share. These units are offered for sale to raise capital. This is termed as issuing shares. A person who buys share/shares of the company is called a shareholder, and by acquiring share or shares in the company becomes one of the owners of the company. Thus, a share is an indivisible unit of capital. It expresses the proprietary relationship between the company and the shareholder. The denominated value of a share is its face value: the total capital of a company is divided into number of shares.

Stock

The capital stock (or just stock) of a business entity represents the original capital paid into or invested in the business by its founders. It serves as a security for the creditors of a business since it cannot be withdrawn to the detriment of the creditors. Stock is distinct from the property and the assets of a business which may fluctuate in quantity and value.

Sweat Equity

Sweat equity is a term that refers to a party's contribution to a project in the form of effort --- as opposed to financial equity, which is a contribution in the form of capital.

Tax

A fee charged ("levied") by a government on a product, income or activity. If tax is levied directly on personal or corporate income, then it is referred to as a direct tax. If tax is levied on the price of a good or service, then it is called an indirect tax. The purpose of taxation is to finance government expenditure. One of the most important uses of taxes is to finance public goods and services, such as street lighting and street cleaning.

Tort Law

A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a wrong that involves a breach of a civil duty (other than a contractual duty) owed to someone else. It is differentiated from a crime, which involves a breach of a duty owed to society in general. Though many acts are both torts and crimes, prosecutions for crime are mostly the responsibility of the state, private prosecutions being rarely used; whereas any party who has been injured may bring a lawsuit for tort. One who commits a tortious act is called a tortfeasor. The equivalent of tort in civil law jurisdictions is delict.

Trust Law

In common law legal systems, a trust is a relationship between three parties whereby property (real or personal, tangible or intangible) is transferred by one party to be held by another party for the benefit of a third party. A trust is created by a settlor, who transfers some or all of his property to a trustee, who holds that trust property for the benefit of the beneficiaries. The trustee has legal title to the trust property, but the beneficiaries have equitable title to the trust property. The trustee owes a fiduciary duty to the beneficiaries, who are the "beneficial" owners of the trust property.